Substation Training

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Substation Physical Design Seminar & Workshop

The physical design for a typical substation project requires an investigation of field conditions, application of design standards to the site-specific conditions, and continued engineering analysis and guidance.

In developing of the physical design, The Engineer will apply available design and CAD standards as well as the appropriate national standards. Basic electrical clearances and spacing are determined according to NESC, ANSI, and NEMA standards. These criteria are used to develop new or modified foundation drawings, grounding plans, and structural details, as well as a bill of materials for the design. Additional landscaping and architectural treatment should be considered.

Development of the physical design should be continually supported by engineering analysis and guidance. Proposed conductors should be reviewed to ensure that they are adequately sized, and calculations are performed to select the size of the station service transformer. Calculations to analyze the substation ground grid are performed in accordance with IEEE Standard 80. Mechanical loading criteria are developed to account for wind and ice loading, forces due to short-circuit currents, and seismic loads. A structural analysis then should be prepared to utilize correct loading data. In addition, an evaluation of the site requirements and applicable regulations should be used to develop an oil-spill prevention, control, and countermeasure plan.

Some of the training agenda for this section may include the following:

  • Describe general requirements of Substation
  • Describe the Single Line requirements of Substation
  • Describe the single operating out-line of Substation
  • Describe the Soecify Drawing types
  • Describe site evaluation and surveys
  • Define Substation equipment
  • Define Clearance requirements
  • Define bus installation
  • Define foundations, type and general calculation
  • Define Steel Requirements
  • Define counduit, grounding and substation protection
  • Section Test
Substation Electrical Design Seminar & Workshop

An electrical, protection and control design begins with development of a preliminary single-line diagram, indicating the bus arrangement and major equipment such as power transformers, circuit breakers, voltage regulators, disconnect switches, capacitors, instrument transformers, etc. General information regarding metering, SCADA, relay interconnections, and communications may be included. The final protection and control scheme for the substation should be presented on a relay and instrumentation single-line diagram that is based on the substation protection and control philosophy, as well as the recommendations of IEEE Standards Collection C37.

Engineer should then apply the available design and CAD standards to create AC and DC elementary diagrams — detailing operation of the protection and control equipment — in accordance with the final relay and instrumentation single-line diagram. These elementary diagrams are subsequently used to create panel layout, connection, and apparatus drawings. The connection drawings are used to create the bill of materials and bill of wire for the project.

When included as part of the scope of work. Engineer's expertise in the evaluation of control and protective device settings are used to achieve proper settings for system protection and coordination. The process of developing the protection and control design should be continually supported by engineering analysis and guidance. The substation battery and battery charger are sized in accordance with IEEE Standard 485 and current-carrying conductors are sized in accordance with NEC standards.

The result should be a design package that clearly and accurately defines the required construction work. Some of the training agenda for this section may include the following:

  • Describe the protection requirements of modern transmission systems
  • Describe the Single operating out-line of Substation
  • Describe and Specify Drawing types
  • Specify current and voltage transformers for protective relay applications
  • Define protective equipments and their functions
  • Define transformer protection
  • Define bus protection
  • Calculate relay settings for transformer protection relays
  • Describe SEL relay logic
  • Describe Operating Procedures document
  • Describe Remote Monitoring/Control of Substation Equipment
  • Section Test
Substation Testing Seminar & Workshop

In class training as well as hands on training for coordination and testing necessary to ensure the system is functioning properly. This section will include system and component inspection prior to energization, field adjustments, calibrations and programming, start up of equipment and system evaluation to ensure conformance to performance specification.

Some of the training agenda for this section may include the following:

  • Describe Substation Commissioning
  • Describe transformer test requirements
  • Define protection relays test requirements
  • Describe breaker test requirements
  • Hands on testing of Over-Current relay
  • Substation site visit
  • Section Test